Online Covariance Calculator

Meet the Covariance Calculator, our tool used to calculate the covariance between two random variables. Covariance is a measure of how two variables are related to each other and is used in statistics to measure the strength of the relationship between two variables. When the covariance is positive, the two variables increase or decrease together, while when it is negative, one variable increases when the other decreases.

A Covariance calculator usually requires supplying data for two random variables, which can be represented as sets of data in a table or as time series. The calculator then uses this data to calculate the covariance between the two variables.

The formula for calculating the covariance is: cov(X, Y) = [Σ(x – μx) * (y – μy)] / (n – 1)


  • X and Y are the two variables being compared;
  • x and y are the observed values of the two variables;
  • μx and μy are the means of the two variables;
  • n is the number of observations.

A Covariance Calculator can be used in many fields such as finance, data science, engineering, psychology and other areas where it is important to understand the relationship between two variables. Covariance is an important measure in data analysis and can help identify patterns and trends that are useful for decision making.

Covariance Calculator

To use the calculator, just enter the data below, you can also optionally add independent and dependent variables to any field, just identify them and the Artificial Intelligence will be able to understand them.

How is the Covariance Calculation done?

In addition to the previously mentioned formula, it is worth noting the following:

The covariance is calculated by finding the average of the X and Y observations and then finding the sum of the products of the differences between the observations and their respective means. Dividing this value by n – 1 gives the covariance between the two variables.

Covariance has some limitations, one of which is that the covariance is not normalized, meaning that it does not have a defined range. To solve this, it is common to use Pearson's correlation coefficient, which is the covariance divided by the product of the standard deviation of X and Y. The correlation coefficient varies from -1 to 1, indicating the intensity of the relationship between the variables, being negative when there is an inverse relationship and positive when there is a direct relationship.

Calculating covariance is used in many areas such as finance, engineering, statistics, social sciences and other areas where it is important to understand the relationship between two variables.

How to find the Covariance?

Covariance is a statistical measure that indicates the linear relationship between two random variables. It measures how these variables vary together.

To find the covariance between two random variables X and Y, follow these steps:

  1. Calculate the X mean and the Y mean. Let's call them “mX” and “mY” respectively.
  2. Calculate the difference between each X value and the X mean. In other words, for each X observation, subtract mX. Let's call these differences “dX”.
  3. Calculate the difference between each Y value and the Y mean. In other words, for each Y observation, subtract mY. Let's call these differences “dY”.
  4. Multiply each pair of corresponding differences (dX and dY) and add these products together. Do this for each observation. For example, if you have n observations, multiply dX1 by dY1, dX2 by dY2, and so on, up to dXn by dYn. Add these products.
  5. Divide the result by the total number of observations. That is, divide the result of step 4 by n.

The formula for the covariance between X and Y is:

Cov(X,Y) = 1/n * sum (dX * dY)

The result of the covariance can be positive, negative or zero. If it is positive, it means that X and Y vary together in the same direction (when X increases, Y also increases). If it is negative, it means that X and Y vary together in opposite directions (when X increases, Y decreases). If it is zero, it means that there is no linear relationship between X and Y.

Covariance is important in statistical analysis because it is used to calculate other statistical measures, such as the correlation coefficient. In addition, covariance is an important measure in investment risk and portfolio analysis.

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